0 BAHMANI KINGDOM TNPSC Group 1 Notes - Indian History



TNPSC Group 1 Notes - Indian History
BAHMANI KINGDOM

1. It was founded in 1347 by Abul Muzzaffar (Alauddin Hasan Bahman Shah) during the reign of Mohammad Bin Tughlaq.

2. He selected Gulbarga as his capital and named it Ahsanabad. He divided the empire into 4 tarfs, Gulbarga, Daultabad, Bidar, Berar.

3. Muhmud Gawan was in the court of Muhammad III. He captured Goa from Vijaynagar and looted the Kanchi templed. It is said about Mahmud Gawan that with the unjust execution of this old minister departed all cohesion of the Bahmani Kingdom.

Vijaynagar Empire

1. It was founded by Harihar and Bukka in 1336. They had earlier served under the Kakatiya ruler of Warrangal, Prataprudra II. They got inspiration from Vidyaranya and Sayana, commentators served under Hoysalas (Veerballal III).

2. Devaraya I: He kept 10,000 Muslims in his army, being the first Vijaynagar king to do so. He faced invasions by Firuz Shah. He built a barrage across Tungabhadra and a dam on river Harihara.

3. Devaraya II: He was known as Gajabetekara, Proudha, Devaraya, etc. He sent a naval expedition against Srilanka. He wrote a commentary on Brahmasutra.

4. Krishnadeva Raya: He led a series of successful campaigns against the rebellious chiefs of Ummatur, Pratap Rudra of Orissa, Yusuf Adil Shah, Ismail Adil Shah. He invaded Gulbarga and Bidar, restored the Bahmani sultan to the throne and assumed the title ‘Yavanasthopanacharya’.

5. He was known as “Anjomava Njpka’, ‘Andhra Pitamaha’. ‘Andhra Bhoja’. He worte ‘Amuktamalayada’ in Telgu and Jambavati Kalyanam, in Sankrit. His cout was adorned by the ‘Astadiggajas’. Pedanna wrote, Manucharitam. Tenalirama wrote ‘Panduranga Mahamatyam. 

6. He built a new city ‘Nagalapuram’ and Hazara temple and Vithalswamy temple.

7. Sadashiva Raya (1543-69): The real power laid in the hands of his miniter Rama Raya. The deccani sultans except Berar joined hands to defeat Vijaynagar in the famous battle of Talikota or Rakshasa Tangadi in 1565. The Vijayanagar government now shifted to Penukonda and later to Chandregiri which was made the capital by Venkat II.

VIJAYANAGAR DYNASTIES

Dynasty Founder Period

Sangama Harihar and Bukka 1336-1485
Saluva Saluva Narsimha 1485-1505
Tuluva Veer Narsima 1503-1570
Aravvidu Tirumala 1570-mid 17th Century

9. Nicolo Conti: He was a Venetian traveler who visited Vijaynagar during the reign of Devaraya I in 1420-21.

10. Abdur Razzak: He was the ambassador of Sultan Shah Rukh of Khurasan to the court of Devaraya II and stayed there for two years.

11. Domingos Paes: He visited Krishnadevaraya’s court in 1520-22.

12. Fernoa Nuniz: How came during Achyuta Rai’s reign.

13. Duarte Barbosa (1518): He was a Portuguese who visited Krishnadeva Raya’s court.

14. Athenasius Nikitin (1415): He was a Russian who visited during Devaraya I’s period. He wrote ‘voyage to India’. 
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0 SULTANATE PERIODTNPSC Group 1 Notes - Indian History



TNPSC Group 1 Notes - Indian History
SULTANATE PERIOD

1. Between 1206 to 1526 A.D. the Slaves, Khiljis, tughlaqs, Saiyyads and Lodhis ruled over a major part of India with their center at Delhi.

2. Slave dynasty is also called Yamini or Illbari Turk dynasty.

3. After the death Muhammad Ghur, his slave Qutubuddin Aibak came to power.

4. Qutubuddin Aibak was successful in thwarting the challenge of his adversaries and was crowned unofficially on 25th June, 1206. He was formally recognized after 3 years. He did not issue any coins. His capital was at Lahore and he was known as Lakhbaksh for his magnanimity. Hasan Nizami, the famous Historian adorned his court. He built the Quwat-ul-Islam mosque and the ‘Adhai din ka jhonpra’ in Delhi and  Ajmer respectively. The former is considered the first mosque built in India. He started the construction of the Qutub Minar and constructed its first storey, but he died in 1210 while playing chaugan (Polo). The work was completed by his successor Iltutmish. This structure was built in memory of the sufi saint Khwaja Qutubuddin Bakhtiar Kaki.

5. After the death of Qutubuddin, Aram Shah ascended the throne but he was deposed and Iltutmish was crowned the new sultan. He was the real founder of Turkish rule in India. In 1228 Iltutmish received the patent of investiture from the Khalifa of Baghdad. Iltutmish declared Razia to be his successor. Chengizkhan invaded India during the period of Iltutmish.

6. Balban or Ulugh Khan (1246-1286) was a member of the Chahalgani founded by Iltutmish. In 1250 the Turkish nobles through a conspiracy outsted him from his post of Naib and put an Indian Muslim Immadudin Raihan in his place. However, Balban finally succeeded in gaining control after the death of Nasirudding Mahmud in 1265. To control the onslaught of the mangols he founded the Diwan-I-Arz or the military department. He started the Iranian system of Sajda and Paibos. He traced his ancestry, from Afrasiyab. He followed a policy of ‘blood and iron’. He destroyed the Mewati Rajput briandage. He called himself ‘Zil-illahi’ or shadow of God on earth and Nasir-amir-ul-momin or Caliphs right hand man. He destroyed the power of the Chahalganis and gave stern punishment to
violators of justice.

7. Jalaluddin (1290-96) founded the Khilji dynasty. He was the first sultan who had a benevolent attitude towards the Hindus. He crushed the rebellions Malik Chajju but lator pardoned him. He repelled the attack of Mongols under Abdullah. Mongols settled near Delhi and were called ‘New Mussalmans’ Sidi Maula, a darvesh was trampled by an elephant on the sultan’s orders.

8. He was assassinated by Ali Gurshasp (Alaudin Khilji) near Kara. He captured Gujarat in 1297 A.D. which was ruled by Rai Karan. He sacked Anhilwara and Somnath and married Kamala Devi, Queen of Rai Karan. He also captured Malik Kafur and took him to the royal court. In 1300, he captured Ranthambhor, which was under Hamirdeva. The women committed Jauhar, which was described by Amir Khusrau. It was the first Persian description of Jauhar. In 1303, Chittor under Ratan Singh was captured. Though some historians describe his infatuation for Padmini, the queen of Ratan Singh as the motive, it was Ratn Singh’s refusal to allow Alauddin’s army to pass through the territory which incensed the sultan. Khizr Khan was made the governor of Chittor which was renamed ‘Khizrabad’. Marwar and Jalor were also captured. In the Deccan, Malik Kafur attacked Devgiri (1306-07), Hoysala (1310- Veer Ballal) and pandayas (1311- Veer Pandya). Devagir was sacked a second time in 1313 when its ruler Sankardeva was killed. According to Amir Khusrau, Malik Kafur Marched as far as Rameshwaram. In 1311, Malik Kafur was given the title of ‘Malik naib’. Alauddin adopted the title ‘Sikandar-I-Sani’ and inscribed the same in his coins. According to Barni he also wanted to form a new religion. Amir Khusrau was given the title of ‘Tuti-i-Hind’ (Parrot of India) In the military field, he introduced the Dagh and Chehera system. He also introduced market reforms. He started the Diwan-IRiyasat (ministry of commerce), had three markets (I) Shahna-I-Mandi (grain market) (II) Sarai-I-Adl (cloth and groceries market), (III) Market for cattle, horses and slaves. No hoarding was allowed. Allauddin Khilji built the Alai Minar, Alai Minar, Alai Darwaza, city of Siri, Mahal hazaar Satoon and Jamait Khana Mosque. He was the first sultan in Delhi to fix land revenue in cash.

9. After murdering Khusrau Shah, Ghazi Malik or Ghyasuddin Tughlaq ascended the throne. He ruled from 1320-25. He sent his son Jauna Khan (Muhammad bin Tughlaq) to Warrangal. Jauna Khan also led a successful expedition to Jajnagar (Orissa). Gyasuddin Tughlaq was the first sultan to
start irrigation works.

10. After his death due to collapse of a wooden structure, Mohammad bin Tughlaq ascended the throne. Muhammad bin tughlaq (1324-1351) has been dubbed an ill-starred idealist’. Ziauddin Barni mentions his five experiments or campaigns. He transferred his capital from Deogir to Daultabad. In 1330 he introduced a token currency (Bronze coin) After repulsing an attack of Mongols he planned to occupy Khurasan and Iraq. He organized a huge army but later disbanded it. He set up a separate
department called ‘Diwan-I-amir-kohi’. He encouraged farmers to grow superior crops. He gave Sonadhar loans to farmers.

11. Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq was succeeded by Firoz Tughlaq (1351-88). He employed a large number of slaves in his Karkhanas. He organized the ‘Diwan-I-Bandagan’ (department of slaves) He built cities like Hissar, Firoza, Firuzabad and Jaunpur. Ashokan pillars from Topra and Meerut were brought to Delhi. He built a number of canals (I) Sirsa to Hansi (II) Sutlej to Dipalpur (III) Yamuna to Sirmur. During his reign Kharaj (10% of produce) Zakat (alms for Muslims). Jaziya, Khams (20% of spoils of was) and Sharb (irrigation tax) were levied. He formed the Diwan-I-Khairat and built Dar-ul-Shafa or a charitable hospital. 

12. The Lodi’s were the first Afghans to rule India. Bahlol Lodhi annexed the Sharqi empire and introduced the Bahloli copper coin. He ruled from 1451 to 1489 A.D.

13. He was succeeded by Sikandar Lodhi (1489-1517). His mother was Hindu. He introduced a new measurement yard called ‘Gazz-I-Sikandari’. He also founded Agra in 1504. He laid emphasis on justice. He wrote Persian verses under the name ‘Gulrukhi’. During his reign the prices of commodity was very cheap.

14. He was succeeded by Ibrahim Lodhi (1517-1526) He was defeated by Rana Sanga of Mewar. He was also defeated by Babur in the battle of Panipat in 1526. Babur was invited by the governor of Punjab Daulat Khan Lodhi. 

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0 TNPSC General English Study Material - Set IV



TNPSC General English 
Study Material - Set IV

Content: General English Study Material

Provided by: We Shine Academy, Chennai

Exam: TNPSC Group I

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0 THE COMING OF ARABS - TNPSC Group 1 Notes - Indian History



TNPSC Group 1 Notes - Indian History
THE COMING OF ARABS

1. The Arabs were the first Muslims to cast their covetous eyes on India attack it. 
2. Incensed by certain pirates of Debal, Al-Hajjaj, the governor of Iraq sent Mohammad Bin Qasim to punish the Indian King. In 712 A.D. Near Raor, Dahir was beaten and killed.
3. In 1014 A.D. Mahmud took Thaneshwar and burnt the temple of Mathura. In 1018 he sacked Kanauj. In 1022-23, he received submission of Gwalior and Kalinjar. In 1025 he destroyed the Somnath Temple in Kathiawar. Between 1000 to 1026 A.D. he made 17 incursions into India.
4. Al-Beruni, was in the court of Mahmud Ghazni and he came to India with him and wrote the famous Treatise ‘Kitab-ul-Hind’.
5. Firdausi (the author of Shahnama) and Utbi also adorned Muhammad Ghazni’s court.
6. Muhammad Ghur was defeated by Prithviraj Chauhan in the first battle of Tarain in 1191 but the former defeated the letter in the second battle of Tarain in 1192 and founded Muslim rule in India. 

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0 STATES OF THE DECCAN AND SOUTH INDIA - TNPSC Group 1 Notes - Indian History



TNPSC Group 1 Notes - Indian History
STATES OF THE DECCAN AND SOUTH INDIA

Pallavas (A.D.550-750)

1. They set up their capital at Kanchi (modern Kanchipuram)
2. Their authority extended over southern Andhra and northern Tamil Nadu.
3. There was a long struggle between the pallavas and the Chalukyas of Badami for supremacy.
4. Narasimhavarman ( A.D.630-68), the pallava King, occupied Chalukyan capital vatapi in about A.D.642 and assumed the title of Vatapikonda. 

CHALUKYAS (EARLY CHALUKYAS OF BADAMI A.D.543-753)

1. Pulakesin II(A.D.608-642): The most famous Chalukya king.
2. Aihole inscription an eulogy written by his court poet Ravikirti.
3. He defeated Harsha’s army on the Narmada.
4. Completely defeated the pallavas in 740.
5. The Rastrakutas bought their hegemony to an end in 757.

LATER CHALUKYAS OF KALVANI ( A.D.973-1190)

1. Vikramaditya VI( A.D.1076-1126)- He is credited to have started Chalukyan vikram era.
2. Rashtrakutas (757-973): Originally a feudatory of Chalukyas of badami and overthrew them in A.D.757 and established own dynasty known as the Rashtrakutas of Mankhed.
3. Important rulers: Dantidurga; Krishna I ( he is credited to have built the Kailasa temple at Ellora); Govind III; Amoghavarsha(the most famous Rashtrakuta king).

THE CHOLAS (850-1279)

1. In 850 A.D Vajayalaya captured Tanjore from the pallavas. He was feudatory of the pallavas. He took titles of Tanjai Konda and Parkesri and built a durga temple in Tanjore.
2. During Aditya I’s regin the Cholas freed themselves from the control of pallavas. He defeated the pallava king Aparajita and secured control over the whole Tondaimandalam.He also defeated the Gangas and the pandyas. 
3. Parantaka I was also called Madurai Konda. In the battle of Vellore he defeated the combined armies of pandyas and Singhals and captured Madurai. During his reign the rivalry with Srilanka was started.
4. In the battle of Takkolam, the combined armies of the Rashtrakutas and the Gangas defeated Parantaka I.
5. The Uttarmerur of Parantaka I throws light on the local administration of the Cholas.
6. Parantaka II defeated veer pandya. He also defeated the Srilanka king for having helped the,Pandiyas.
7. Uttamchola defeated the Rashtrakutas.
8. Raja Raja I (985-1014) adopted the titles of Aruemolivarman, Mamadi Chodadeva, Jaykonda, Martanda Chola, Mumadi Chola, Keralanath, Singhalatank, Pandkulashini etc.
9. Raja Raja I defeated the Cheras Chalukyas and Gangas. He captured madura from the Pandyas. He capture northern Ceylon and made Polonnaruva its capital in place of Anuradhapur. He annexed the
Maldives.
10. He built the Brihadeshwar Shive temple in Tanjore which is also called Rajarajeshwar temple.
11. During his reign, the ruler of Srivijaya built a Vihara at Nagapattanam
12. Rajendra I (1014-1044) succeeded Rajaraja I. He completed the victory over Ceylon and took its king Mahinda to the Chola kingdom. He defeated the Pandyas and Keralas and formed a new kingdom with its capital at Madurai. His son Rajadhiraja was appointed the viceroy here.
13. He led an expedition to the north and defeated the pala ruler Mahipala I. he assumed the title of ‘Gangaikonda’ and established a new capital named ‘Gangaikonda cholapuram’. He built a Shiva temple here and excavated a tank called ‘Chodagarg’. He also defeated the Shailendra or Srivijaya King Vijayatungavarman.
14. During his reign, his son Rajadhiraja suppressed a rebellion of the Pandyas and Cheras.
15. He assumed the title of ‘Pandit Chola’. Mudikonda Chola,, Nigarilli Chola and Gangaikondachola.
16. He had allowed Vijaytungavarman of the Shailendra dynasty to build the Chudamani Vihar at Nagapatanam.
17. We owe much to the concept of Panchayati Raj to the Cholas.
18. The Chola Empire was divided into 6 provinces called Mandalams. Mandalams were subsequently divided into kottam, Valanadu, Nadu and Gram.
19. The uttarmerur inscription of Dantivarman Pallava and Parantaka I have thrown sufficient light on the local self government of the Cholas.
20. Ur was the most common assembly of villages where land was held by different castes. The assembly consisted to tax paying residents.
21. The sabha or the Mahasabha was the exclusive assembly of the brahamanas who resided in the agrahar villages given to them through brahmadeya grants.
22. The third type of assembly, the Nagaram was the assembly of merchants in towns. 
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